Unethical Decision Making in Organizations , week (1-7) All Quiz Answers with Assignments.

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Unethical Decision Making in Organizations




week 7 Assignment : 

PROMPT

1. Describe the context

Ethical issues are inescapable. Codes of ethics and conduct are useful tools for encouraging ethical behavior at work. But they cannot address every issue,and in many circumstances, employees must respond instantaneously to ethical issues and contingency factors as they arise. Assume that you are an engineer on a team working under a tight deadline to finish designing a new model car to be sold next year. The automobile company is depending on the new model car to enter a new market, which will enable the company to meet sales and profit expectations. All test drivers claim it’s a wonderful drive and sales projections are phenomenal. Unfortunately, the car falls short of meeting federal emission standards. Your boss requests that your engineering team design software to temporarily cheat the emission tests and then fix the problem in the future. The other team members are willing to do so because upper managers ordered them and it is for the good of the company. Would you also agree to work on the project? Should you be loyal to the team and manager and avoid being ostracized or fired?Some individuals may say yes, and some no.



PROMPT

2. Identify the ethical issues and risks in this context

Convincingly explain the risks of ethical blindness that you have seen in this context in the past. Maybe you could provide some examples of incidents that make you believe that ethical blindness already exists or might build up in the future.



Convincingly explain the risks of ethical blindness thatyou have seen in this context in the past. Maybe you could provide some examples of incidents that make you believe that ethical blindness already exists or might build up in the future.Convincingly explain the risks of ethical blindness that you have seen in this context in the past. Maybe you could provide some examples of incidents that make you believe that ethical blindness already exists or might build up in the future. Ethics is rooted in the ancient Greek philosophical inquiry of moral life. It refers to a system of principles which can critically change previous considerations about choices and actions. It is said that ethics is the branch of philosophy which deals with the dynamics of decision making concerning what is right and wrong. Scientific research work, as all human activities, is governed by individual, community and social values. Research ethics involve requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and the publication of the information in the research. However,when nurses participate in research they have to cope with three value systems; society; nursing and science.The societal values about human rights, the nursing culture based on the ethic of caring and the researcher's values about scientific inquiry. According to Clarke the se values may conflict with the values of subjects,communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing. In this paper, the most important ethical issues will be addressed.


PROMPT

3. Apply the theoretical concepts of the course

The central concepts that we introduced in this course (framing, three contextual layers of the situation, the organization, the institutions, temporal dynamics, and routines in general) have to appear in the essay (obviously, not all of these but, ideally, you are able to discuss across various levels and coherently connect these). Keep in mind that ethical blindness, as we understand it, results from a constellation of such factors and rarely from an individual and isolated factor.

The central concepts that we introduced in this course(framing, three contextual layers of the situation, the organization, the institutions, temporal dynamics, and routines in general) have to appear in the essay(obviously, not all of these but, ideally, you are able to discuss across various levels and coherently connect these). Keep in mind that ethical blindness, as we understand it, results from a constellation of such factors and rarely from an individual and isolated factor.The central concepts that we introduced in this course(framing, three contextual layers of the situation, the organization, the institutions, temporal dynamics, and routines in general) have to appear in the essay(obviously, not all of these but, ideally, you are able to discuss across various levels and coherently connect these). Keep in mind that ethical blindness, as we understand it, results from a constellation of such factors and rarely from an individual and isolated factor.When someone makes a “bad” or unethical decision inside or outside the workplace, we oftentimes ask the question: why? Perhaps answering this question is important because it helps us make sense of the behavior, as well as helping us prevent it from happening again in the future. Schurr and colleagues recently sought an answer to the question, “Why?”, when explaining unethical behavior.


PROMPT

4. Describe 3-5 activities you would like to take in order to defend yourself and/or the chosen organizational context against ethical blindness.

You can build on ideas that we proposed in the course (in particular, the last week) or come up with your own ideas of defence strategies. It is important not only to describe what you would like to do to change the situation/reduce the risk, but also what you will do to perpetuate the new behaviour/routine/culture.

You can build on ideas that we proposed in the course(in particular, the last week) or come up with your own ideas of defence strategies. It is important not only to describe what you would like to do to change the situation/reduce the risk, but also what you will do to perpetuate the new behaviour/routine/culture. bunethical behavior by and within companies. When these cases are made public by traditional muck rakerslike Upton Sinclair in the nineteenth century or today’sNGOs, byinternal whistle-blowers or official investigations, the public is often shocked. It seems to be difficult to under-stand how behaviors that seem toviolate any moral com-mon sense are possible. During the last three decades, the business ethics literaturehas developed sophisticated models that have considerably improved our understanding of why, how,and under what conditions individuals make ethical decisions—and when they fail to do so. These models suggest that (un)ethical decisions are the result of an inter play between personal traits of the decision maker and characteristics of the situation(Trevino 1986).However, most research on ethical decision making still builds on the assumption that decisions are made byrational actors (see critically Sonenshein 2007).The rationality assumption is displayed in several ways.Standingin the tradition of moral philosophy, business ethicists usually assume that there is a moral point of view from which the ethicality of a decision can be evaluated.



PROMPT

5. Describe the results you want to see

What will be the ideal result of your activities and how will you observe and assess the results of your defence strategy?


Business history is rich with examples of extreme forms of unethical behavior by and within companies. When these cases are made public by traditional muck rakerslike Upton Sinclair in the nineteenth century or today’s NGOs, by internal whistle-blowers or official investigations, the public is often shocked. It seems to be difficult to under-stand how behaviors that seem to violate any moral com-mon sense are possible.During the last three decades, the business ethics literature has developed sophisticated models that have consider ably improved our understanding of why, how,and under what conditions individuals make ethical decisions—and when they fail to do so. These models suggest that (un)ethical decisions are the result of an interplay between personal traits of the decision maker and characteristics of the situation(Trevino 1986).However, most research on ethical decision making still builds on the assumption that decisions are made by rational actors (see critically Sonenshein 2007).The rationality assumption is displayed in several ways. Stand in gin the tradition of moral philosophy, business ethicists usually assume that there is a moral point of view from which theethicality of a decision can be evaluated. They acknowledge that the moral point of view can be interpreted differently,depending on the specific background philosophy (e.g., the Kantian duty approach versus the Utilitarian calculation). But they share the assumption that there is an objective and impartial yardstick that people can (and do) use to weigh arguments and come to a decision (Hunt and Vitell 1986)


















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