Qualitative Research Methods, week (1-8) All Quiz Answers with Assignments.

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 Qualitative Research Methods






Week  1 Assignment :

PROMPT

Give the reference to the article you’ve chosen. Use a citation style (reference format) commonly used in your field, such as APA or Harvard.

Marwell, N. P. (2004). Privatizing the welfare state: Nonprofit community-based organizations as political actors. American sociological review, 69(2), 265-291


PROMPT

Give a short (200 words maximum) summary of the article (do not copy and paste the abstract). In the summary you write about the topic, the data-collection methods used and the analytical approach.

The researcher examines supportive service provision through Community Based Organization (CBOs). In USA privatization and devolution policies have led to bestow private non-profit organizations as the primary providers of social services to local poor residents. The researcher analyzed how CBOs function led to the causation of Service provision, community building and electoral politics. The researcher analyze the basic function of community based organizations through models where the organizations functioned to bind local residents to the organization and produce reliable voting constituencies for local elected officials. The researcher analyzed this process on the ground through research method of ethnographic research. She collected the data through a long term field work where she worked as participant observer and also taken interviews. Her participant observation enabled her to analyze this situation where the higher officials further utilize such electoral constituencies to steer government resources and favor certain COBs. It is through the creation of triadic relations among CBOs, high government officials and the local residents that influence local resident abilities to avail such services.



PROMPT

Which of the following philosophical concepts do the authors use in the article? How do they use it?

  • Ontology
  • Epistemology
  • Hermeneutics
  • Phenomenology
  • Pragmatism
  • None of these concepts?

The researcher did not explicitly used any of these concept in her paper but her understanding of research problem is based on the knowledge of ontological, Hermeneutics, phenomenological and Pragmatism concepts. Without understanding such concepts or background training in these concepts she would not be able to understand the research problem.




PROMPT

Write a short argumentation (max 200 words) why the author(s) do or do not need these philosophical concepts.

Philosophy is essential for social scientists. In this paper it is the researcher philosophical understanding (knowledge of ontology, epistemology, hermeneutic, Phenomenology and pragmatism) that enable her to look on the ground and analyze that what are multiple realities out there behind the function of Community Based Organization (CBOs) and how such realities can be grasped. Without philosophical knowledge she would not be able to explore the third causation factors by CBOs (electoral politics) where this factor is missing in the previous sociological theories. She used phenomenological approach in the sense that she used qualitative research methods to grasp the hidden reality and the structure beneath CBOs functions. In participant observation the researcher grasp the meaning consciously by using experience and senses. The researcher would not be able for understanding social complications if she did not have the background knowledge and skills in philosophy of science. She would not be able to grasp meaning from the CBOS activities and the hidden meaning from the interaction activities between CBOs and the recipients of both reciprocal and non-reciprocal activities. In qualitative research the use of the philosophy of science and philosophical concept especially phenomenological methods is very important for exploring social reality.



Week  2 Assignment :

PROMPT

Find and describe a place where people are waiting (e.g. in queues at stores, at public transport stations etc.) Observe in this place for at least 15 minutes.

Describe in detail three of the actors and their activities at this place (focusing on waiting behaviour). Try to use less than 1500 words, but more than 500 words.

Do not come up with new names of waiting styles yet. Try to resist using more abstract concepts, such as Loflands principles. Just describe in detail what you see.

Please consider ethical issues, such as privacy (make people unidentifiable, so do not publish names and other information known).

Save the description on your own device for later use in assignment D (you will be asked to paste the description in this assignment).

Atmosphere is the essential determinant of agricultural productivity. Issues over the potential impacts of long term climatic change on agriculture has influenced a considerable group of research over the previous decade. Weather and Soil data predicting technique plays vital role in meteorology. Raining and increased temperature are randomly affects agriculture. The decision support for agriculture is still having several problems, because every area soil, climate and other factors are different. Initially, An improved soil prediction data model is used to estimate the parameters at different locations. The model involves multiple regression equation, chi-square test and Kmeans clustering techniques. ISPDM model predicts accurate information about soil data. Improved K-means clustering model were developed to forecast weather data based on meteorological analysis in Coimbatore region In order to analyze the weather and soil data, Bioinspired K-Nearest Neighbor classification algorithm (BKNA) is developed and compared with existing FP Growth techniques. The result obtained from the BKNA model showed that, the BKNA used to predict accurate soil and weather analysis in different conditions to develop agriculture in the region.




PROMPT

What is most strange or remarkable that you have observed?

Agriculture field is one of the back-bone of Indian economy. The basic need of the human being and animals is fulfilled by the agriculture sector. The productivity of agriculture depends on geographical conditions and season. Yield of the agriculture, gives one of the measurable parameters that contribute towards the real income of the country. Analysis of huge agriculture database is done through data mining techniques. The data mining algorithms are used to extract information from the dataset. The soils of Coimbatore Region are predominantly of red loamy and black types. It is estimated that 82 percent of the area is of red soil and 18 percent of the area is a black soil. Weather directly depends upon the air molecules which can absorb high frequency sunrays. The air molecules data is collected by the system periodically after every one hour. The Weka tool uses these raw data to bound large information to find the “Structural weather Database”. Then the collected weather dataset are classified main database into four regions that are grouped according to the direction of wind flow over the year. Data mining involves the use of erudite data analysis tools to discover previously unidentified, suitable patterns and relationships in large data sets. Data mining tools can include statistical models, machine learning methods such as neural networks or decision trees, and mathematical algorithms. However, the proposed soil and weather data analysis model predicts exact results than other model; also the proposed models are compared with exiting techniques in this research.


Week  4 Assignment :

PROMPT
How did the interview go? Reflect on your interviewer behaviour in terms of both person oriented and task oriented interview behaviour.

The interview went well. Initially my interviewee was only providing short answer, but as the interview went on he became more comfortable and started to elaborate a little more in his responses. In order to do this I tried to build rapport with my interviewee by listening and asking questions to prompt them to elaborate further. I tried to make them as comfortable as possible while also using that to gain as much insight as I can into their understanding of happiness .



PROMPT
Discuss two fragments with examples on how you used good interviewing behaviour.

I used good interviewing behaviour when I commented on his replies to build a rapport. When he was talking about things that made him happy, I commented that wow yes that does sound like fun which made him more comfortable to elaborate a little more on why he found what he did enjoyable. I also used good interviewing behaviour by not being to suggestive with my questions. I would try to be native on the answers in order to have the most honest genuine answer from my interviewee. An example of this is when he answered the second question on what the word happiness means to him and he answered very scientifically. I wasn't really looking for a scientific answer but rather if the word has any special meaning to him so in response I asked him about the importance of happiness in his life instead of asking if he believes it is important or strives to be happy.



PROMPT
Discuss three fragments with examples in which you made mistakes, for instance:
  • You could have probed better
  • You were too directive
  • Your questions were suggestive
  • You were missing parts of the answers
  • You were not keen enough on rapport
  • You were too keen on rapport
Argue why you see this as a mistake and how you could have done better.

I was a little too keen on rapport at times. As it was difficult to get my interviewee to speak up more, I tried to keep the conversation going and sometimes it would go off onto a slight tangent. There was one point where we were discussing what makes my interviewee happy and he mentioned cooking because he enjoyed learning and I probed further to ask if there was anything particular in learning about looking or did he find joy in all kinds of learning and then we ended up talking about learning for a bit longer than I would have killed as it doesn't directly relate to the theme of happiness. I would miss parts of answers by moving on to the next topic too quickly and also could have probed better. At the start of the interview I asked what made my interviewee happy and he replied playing games with his friends. And I was satisfied with that answer and moved on to the next question too quickly when I could have probed about how that made him feel or what about it made him happy to more easily move on to the next question of happiness. I later went back to the first question after he was more comfortable and he gave a more thought out answer though I think I initially could have phrased it better. Finally, I could have used better question order. I would jump around topics or go back to previous questions because I realized I didn't receive enough elaboration. For example, after he answered the last question about the last time he experienced happiness he mentioned other things that made him happy so I jumped back to the first question.



PROMPT
What vision of the interview did you have? Write a short argumentation (max 200 words) on what vision you have used on the interview.

My vision for the interview was to have an understanding of what happiness meant to my interviewee and be able to compare it to my own sense of happiness. My vision was to see how someone else values happiness in their life, how often they take note of it, and what they need to feel happy. I feel that different people in different environments have different ideas on what they need in order to be happy and I wanted to understand why they felt they may need those things if they be physical things, experiences, or events.


Week  5 Assignment :

PROMPT

Reconsider the description you wrote for assignment B, based on the feedback you’ve received in the review. (So probably you will add some detail, or make some parts more clear.) If the description was already outstanding, then just copy and paste. Please submit the complete description below.

Again, please consider ethical issues, such as privacy (make people unidentifiable, so do not publish names and other information known).

Paste the description here:

In a supermarket queue The first couple I spot is clearly having an argument. They try to keep their voices low but the clear annoyance on one of their faces is obvious. One carries the shopping in a basket, apples, chicken fillets, biscuits and razors. A random assortment of items. They attempt to swing the basket around and try to disarm the situation by trying to make the other laugh, but it is ineffective. They sigh outwardly as the other one continues to scold the other. The ‘scolder’, attempts to keep their tone low but the overactive hand movements give them away. As they unload the shopping with downward force, the other pulls out their phone to try and distract from the situation and hope that when they look up all will be well again in their relationship. The other glares as they unload the shopping basket. It is a very private moment in a very public place. The phone is put back in the pocket and the wallet comes out of the other, possibly a show of good faith of their part, to pay for the shopping, which seems to please the other. After they pay, the pack their shopping at the back of the store and I notice a tender moment between them where they hug and seem to forget about everything. The mood lifts between them and they exit the store hand in hand. The next person is alone with earphones in. They survey the queues at each till, trying to ascertain which queue will be the quickest. They shuffle from foot to foot as they try to decide, but in the end, they stay where they are. They pull items out of the shopping basket and read the ingredients on the packaging, a way to pass time in a seemingly endless queue of people. After a thorough reading of their shopping the phone comes out and a new song is selected. They tap their foot and attempt not to dance in the supermarket queue, that would make them a social pariah right there on the Lidl checkout. They look around trying to focus on something to distract their attention while they wait. They go into a world of their own as when there called upon, they snap back to reality and quickly skip forward to the cashier, taking out one earphone so as not to appear rude. They pick up and put down two or three items while there shopping is scanned and then carefully count their coins before handing it over reluctantly to the cashier. They frantically put the shopping in the bags, thank the cashier and leave the store. The final person I observe is alone just with a few items in their hands. Quite a young person who seems to be unfamiliar with this shopping process and is like a deer in headlights. Perhaps they are new to the city? They pull out there shopping list twice, three times to make doubly sure they grabbed all the supplies they needed. Then the phone comes out as they try to distract from the real world and try to connect with the online world, aimlessly scrolling through Instagram and Facebook. As they move up the queue, they seem to get more nervous, more fidgety as their time ‘on the stage’ draws nearer. As they unload the shopping onto the belt, they seem to try to add up the cost on their hands and have the money ready as soon as requested. They are informed of the cost and thrust the money into the cashier’s hands with a half-smile. They request a bag, pack their belongings and leave the store



PROMPT

In assignment B you've already described three actors. In order to have your peers coding them, you will have to copy them from the description and paste them below.

Select the fragment describing the first actor and paste the fragment here:

The first couple I spot is clearly having an argument. They try to keep their voices low but the clear annoyance on one of their faces is obvious. One carries the shopping in a basket, apples, chicken fillets, biscuits and razors. A random assortment of items. They attempt to swing the basket around and try to disarm the situation by trying to make the other laugh, but it is ineffective. They sigh outwardly as the other one continues to scold the other. The ‘scolder’, attempts to keep their tone low but the overactive hand movements give them away. As they unload the shopping with downward force, the other pulls out their phone to try and distract from the situation and hope that when they look up all will be well again in their relationship. The other glares as they unload the shopping basket. It is a very private moment in a very public place. The phone is put back in the pocket and the wallet comes out of the other, possibly a show of good faith of their part, to pay for the shopping, which seems to please the other. After they pay, the pack their shopping at the back of the store and I notice a tender moment between them where they hug and seem to forget about everything. The mood lifts between them and they exit the store hand in hand.




PROMPT

Select the fragment describing the second actor and paste the fragment here:

The next person is alone with earphones in. They survey the queues at each till, trying to ascertain which queue will be the quickest. They shuffle from foot to foot as they try to decide, but in the end, they stay where they are. They pull items out of the shopping basket and read the ingredients on the packaging, a way to pass time in a seemingly endless queue of people. After a thorough reading of their shopping the phone comes out and a new song is selected. They tap their foot and attempt not to dance in the supermarket queue, that would make them a social pariah right there on the Lidl checkout. They look around trying to focus on something to distract their attention while they wait. They go into a world of their own as when there called upon, they snap back to reality and quickly skip forward to the cashier, taking out one earphone so as not to appear rude. They pick up and put down two or three items while there shopping is scanned and then carefully count their coins before handing it over reluctantly to the cashier. They frantically put the shopping in the bags, thank the cashier and leave the store.



PROMPT

Select the fragment describing the third actor and paste the fragment here:

The final person I observe is alone just with a few items in their hands. Quite a young person who seems to be unfamiliar with this shopping process and is like a deer in headlights. Perhaps they are new to the city? They pull out there shopping list twice, three times to make doubly sure they grabbed all the supplies they needed. Then the phone comes out as they try to distract from the real world and try to connect with the online world, aimlessly scrolling through Instagram and Facebook. As they move up the queue, they seem to get more nervous, more fidgety as their time ‘on the stage’ draws nearer. As they unload the shopping onto the belt, they seem to try to add up the cost on their hands and have the money ready as soon as requested. They are informed of the cost and thrust the money into the cashier’s hands with a half-smile. They request a bag, pack their belongings and leave the store.




PROMPT

Step 1. Interpret the fragment on the first actor in terms of waiting. Say in only a few sentences what is going on in this fragment.

Step 2. Compare the fragment and your interpretation with the different waiting styles (by Lofland or others at the Forum).

Step 3. Which waiting style could you link to the fragment?

The fragment describes a couple which is having a  private moment in a public place i.e. an argument. It could be described as Loflands theory of the leader and  the follower of the waiting room. In which one surveys  and assesses the situation and leads the other.



PROMPT

Step 1. Interpret the fragment on the second actor in terms of waiting. Say in only a few sentences what is going on in this fragment.

Step 2. Compare the fragment and your interpretation with the different waiting styles (by Lofland or others at the Forum).

Step 3. Which waiting style could you link to the fragment?

The second fragment is the ' distractor ' as Lofland  describes. The person who searches for items and signs  to read that aren't particularly interesting in order to  pass the time.


PROMPT

Step 1. Interpret the fragment on the third actor in terms of waiting. Say in only a few sentences what is going on in this fragment.

Step 2. Compare the fragment and your interpretation with the different waiting styles (by Lofland or others at the Forum).

Step 3. Which waiting style could you link to the fragment?

This author is the one who attempts to shield  themselves from the outside world, they will not talk to anyone and no one will talk to them. They use their  phone or other methods to deter those from speaking to them and create there own private ' bubble '.



PROMPT

Step 1. Interpret your description in terms of principles of symbolic transformation.

Step 2. Compare your description and your interpretation with the different principles of symbolic transformation.

Step 3. Which principle(s) could you link to your description?

The factors take on roles and symbolic transform the  space around them in the super market in order to create private bubbles around them.



Week  6 Assignment :

PROMPT

Summarise the part of the interview on the meaning of happiness (maximum 500 words). Use some direct quotes or translations, in order to give a lively description.

Summarization of interview on the meaning of happiness : When I started interviewing the participant on her meaning of happiness, the interview turned a lot more abstract and analytical. Before we had discussed what makes the participant happy and the participant, had a lot to say on this topic. Now, however, she was a bit perplexed: “Hmm, that is quite difficult to say”; “I never really thought about that.” I tried to guide the conversation a bit and told her that she should not think too complicated: “Well happiness is quite universal emotion wouldn’t you say?”. She agreed and stated that happiness is something we all strive for in lots of different forms. She continued saying that we are not happy all the time so there must a baseline for happiness and that this baseline is different depending on our personality. I encouraged her expressing that I found her views interesting and that she should tell me more. The last thing she added to her answer was that she believed that happiness, in the end, is a question of perspective. In my opinion that was a nice conclusion, so I closed this question and moved to the next one. Like this only the interview was going on.



PROMPT

While summarising, you thought and made notes about the analytic task you did. Now, answer at least two of the following questions after you’ve written the summary in a short reflection (maximum 500 words).

a. How did you go about? Were you coding and then summarising, based on the codes? Or were you writing a narrative? What writing method did you use?

b. Are you describing the interaction or are you describing the ideas of the interviewee, or a combination of both?

c. Did you ran into issues of representation, did you feel you could or could not properly represent the interview? If so, how did you solve this?

d. Did you write a realist, confessional or an impressionist tale? Please explain shortly.

I just described and wrote a realistic impressionistic tale b) : I tried to give a lively description of the interview by also focusing on the interaction between me and my interviewee. I think that those interactions are crucial for a good interview on such an emotional topic. The views on the meaning of happiness, however, are solely expressed by my interviewee. So yes it is a mixture of both a description of the interaction as well as a description of the interviewee’s ideas. d) : I would label this writing as more of an impressionist tale. On the one hand, I took a bird’s eye approach looking at how this part of the interview is embedded in the rest of the interview also looking at what happened before this part of the interview. On the other hand, I also looked at specific details on what my interviewee stated were her ideas on the meaning of happiness













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